What Would Cause Calcaneal Apophysitis?

Overview

Sever?s disease is similar to Osgood-Schlatter disease of the knee in that they both involve a partial detachment or tearing of the tendon from the bone. The difference is location: Osgood-Schlatter occurs at the knee, and Sever?s occurs at the ankle. In Sever?s disease, which usually occurs in children from the ages of 8 to 14, the Achilles tendon begins to tear away from its insertion into the calcaneus or heel bone. This injury can be very painful and affect highly active to somewhat inactive children. Symptoms include pain that increases with activity, localized pain in the back of the foot, tenderness to the touch, and swelling. Treatment includes rest, ice, compression, elevation, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication as necessary.

Causes

Risk Factors For Sever?s Disease. While anyone can get Sever?s Disease, it most commonly affects boys, but may also affect girls. Children ages eight to thirteen. Children involved in high-impact sports like baseball, football and soccer. Kids with forefoot to midfoot misalignment walking patterns. Poor-fitting shoes. Standing for long periods of time. Obesity. Flat feet. A gait that roll inwards.

Symptoms

The patient complains of activity related pain that usually settles with rest. On Examination the heel bone - or calcaneum - is tender on one or both sides. The gastrocnemius and soleus muscles (calf muscles) may be tight and bending of the ankle might be limited because of that. Foot pronation (rolling in) often exacerbates the problem. There is rarely anything to see and with no redness or swelling and a pain that comes and goes mum and dad often wait before seeking advice on this condition. The pain may come on partway through a game and get worse or come at the end of the game. Initially pain will be related only to activity but as it gets worse the soreness will still be there the next morning and the child might limp on first getting up.

Diagnosis

Sever?s disease can be diagnosed based on your history and symptoms. Clinically, your physiotherapist will perform a "squeeze test" and some other tests to confirm the diagnosis. Some children suffer Sever?s disease even though they do less exercise than other. This indicates that it is not just training volume that is at play. Foot and leg biomechanics are a predisposing factor. The main factors thought to predispose a child to Sever?s disease include a decrease in ankle dorsiflexion, abnormal hind foot motion eg overpronation or supination, tight calf muscles, excessive weight-bearing activities eg running.

Non Surgical Treatment

See a doctor, who can diagnose the injury and recommend appropriate treatment options. It will be beneficial to rest the affected heel, and to regularly ice the affected area for the first few days. Anti-inflammatory pain medication can reduce pain and swelling, but first check with your doctor. As the pain diminishes a physical therapist can assist with a program of rehabilitation, incorporating stretching and strengthening exercises focused on the calf, shin and hamstring muscles. For a period after the injury has healed the doctor may advise on changes to your training routines that seek to lessen the strain on the heels. Orthotics are often recommended for your shoes in order to correct any biomechanical problems or lend extra support to the heels.

Exercise

Exercises that help to stretch the calf muscles and hamstrings are effective at treating Sever's disease. An exercise known as foot curling, in which the foot is pointed away from the body, then curled toward the body in order to help stretch the muscles, has also proven to be very effective at treating Sever's disease. The curling exercise should be done in sets of 10 or 20 repetitions, and repeated several times throughout the day.

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